//White papers

Angle of Arrival/Direction Finding Techniques

Angle of Arrival (AoA) or Direction Finding (DF) techniques are perhaps the most widely-used ways to geolocate radio frequency signals. In this white paper, we outline the various forms of AoA , including how they work, how they can be applied in practice, and how they can be combined with other geolocation techniques such as time difference of arrival (TDOA). [...]

Angle of Arrival/Direction Finding Techniques2020-08-18T09:01:19+00:00

Principles of Geolocation Techniques

Geolocation of RF signals can appear to be a complex field, with an alphabet soup of available techniques (AoA, TDOA, FDOA & POA). In this White Paper, we will seek to unpick some of this complexity by describing the underlying principles of these geolocation techniques and giving an outline of their applications. Fill in your email address below to receive your free copy. [...]

Principles of Geolocation Techniques2020-07-30T10:40:43+00:00

Passive Geolocation with 3D TDOA

Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) techniques use differences in the travel time of RF signals to pinpoint their location of origin. 3D TDOA allows signals' altitude, as well their latitude and longitude, to be calculated. In this White Paper, we discuss the basic operating principles of 3D TDOA, explore some practical limitations on its accuracy, examine some applications of the technique, and see an [...]

Passive Geolocation with 3D TDOA2019-05-03T08:39:36+00:00

Machine Learning and RF Spectrum Intelligence Gathering

Many applications that are central to RF spectrum intelligence gathering require some sort of pattern recognition. For example, to classify a signal by type we need to identify the particular pattern associated with the modulation, while to recognise that there is an interesting signal present in received data, we need to distinguish between pattern and noise. In this White Paper, we explore how machine [...]

Machine Learning and RF Spectrum Intelligence Gathering2019-04-17T15:35:48+00:00

Advanced Geolocation Capabilities

In this White Paper, CRFS looks at the benefits of advanced geolocation features such as Multi Geolocation, Cumulative AOA and Multitarget Tracking. We see how some of these more advanced capabilities are key to getting more out of AOA, POA and TDOA geolocation techniques. Fill in your email address below to receive your free copy.

Advanced Geolocation Capabilities2020-07-30T09:00:40+00:00

Noise Figure: What is it and why does it matter?

Noise figure is a key parameter in receiver performance, but the value of a receiver with low noise figure is often not appreciated. In this White Paper, we explain what exactly noise figure is and why you should care about it. Fill in your email address below to receive your free copy.

Noise Figure: What is it and why does it matter?2020-07-30T09:00:53+00:00

Spectrum Monitoring and Geolocation Systems

Over recent years, we have witnessed the exponential growth in the use of new wireless devices. Radio communication plays a vital role in connecting and making these devices talk to each other. Spectrum is critical to the success of many wireless industries and services including mobile communications, television and radio broadcasting, emergency communications services, radar and many more. More than ever, “spectrum intelligence” is [...]

Spectrum Monitoring and Geolocation Systems2020-07-30T09:01:20+00:00
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